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时间:2019-01-04 英语知识 我要投稿
  类 别  意义  例 句  实义动词  含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句子中能独立作谓语。  She has some bananas.  They eat a lot of potatoes.  连系动词  本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须和表语一起构成谓语。  His father is a teacher.  Twins usually look the same.  The teacher became very angry.  助动词  本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,用来表示否定、疑问、时态、语态或其它语法形式,助动词自身有人称、单复数和时态的变化。  He doesn’t speak English.  We are playing basketball.  Do you have a brother?  情态动词  本身有一定的意义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和单复数的变化,有些情态动词有过去式。  You can keep the books for two weeks.  May I smoke here?  We must go now.  重要注解:  (1)关于实义动词:  ①英语的实义动词又可分为及物动词和不及物动词两大类:  后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的叫及物动词;本身意义完整,后面不需跟宾语的叫不及物动词。  ②有些动词通常只作不及物动词。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive等。  有些动词通常用作及物动词。如:say,raise,lay,find,buy等。  ③大多数动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:study,sing等。  ④有些动词作及物动词与作不及物动词时的意义有所不同。如:know,wash等。  ⑤有些动词常和介词、副词或其它词类一起构成固定词组,形成短语动词。如:listen,reply,wait,look.  (2)关于连系动词:  ①连系动词用来连接主语和表语,连系动词后面常为形容词。  ②常见的连系动词有:be、become、look、feel、sound、smell、taste、seem、turn、grow、get、go、fall、sit、stand、lie等。  ③有些连系动词来源于实义动词,意思也跟着变化:look(看→看起来)、feel(感觉、摸→感到)、smell(闻、嗅→闻起来)、taste(尝→尝起来)、turn(翻转、转动→变得)、grow(生长→变得)、get(得到、到达→变得)、go(去→变得),所不同的是,作为实义动词时,后面不能跟形容词。  (3)关于助动词:  ①常见的助动词有:  用于进行时和被动语态的be(am,is,are,was,were,been,being);  用于完成时的have(has,had,having);  用于将来时的shall(should);will(would)  用于一般时的do(does,did).  ②助动词必须同主语的人称和数一致,也就是说因主语人称、数的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助动词也可作情态动词。如:shall,will,should,would.  2、动词词形变化一览表:  (1)规则动词变化表:  规 则变 化  原形动词结尾情况  现在时单三人称  现在分词/动名词  过去式和过去分词  一般情况  +s  +ing  +ed  s,x,ch,sh,o结尾  +es  +ing  +ed  辅音字母+y结尾  y→i,+es  +ing  y→i,+ed  重读闭音节一元一辅结尾  +s  双写辅音字母,+ing  双写辅音字母,+ed  不发音的e结尾  +s  去掉e,+ing  +d  ie结尾  +s  ie→y,+ing  +d  不规则变化  have→has;be→is  (无)  (见不规则动词变化表)  (2)不规则动词变化表:(原形→过去式→过去分词)  be(am,is)  was  been  lose  lost  lost  be(are)  were  been  make  made  made  beat  beat  beaten  may  might  become  became  become  mean  meant  meant  begin  began  begun  meet  met  met  blow  blew  blown  mistake  mistook  mistaken  break  broke  broken  must  must  bring  brought  brought  pay  paid  paid  build  built  built  put  put  put  buy  bought  bought  read  read  Read  can  could  ride  rode  ridden  catch  caught  caught  ring  rang  rung  choose  chose  chosen  rise  rose  risen  come  came  come  run  ran  run  cost  cost  cost  say  said  said  cut  cut  cut  see  saw  seen  dig  dug  dug  sell  sold  sold  do  did  done  send  sent  sent  draw  drew  drawn  set  set  set  drink  drank  drunk  shall  should  drive  drove  driven  shine  shone  shone  eat  ate  eaten  show  showed  shown  fall  fell  fallen  shut  shut  shut  feel  felt  felt  sing  sang  sung  find  found  found  sink  sank/sunk  sunk/sunken  fly  flew  flown  sit  set  set  forget  forgot  forgot/forgotten  sleep  slept  slept  freeze  froze  frozen  smell  smelt  smelt  get  got  got  speak  spoke  spoken  give  gave  given  spend  spent  spent  go  went  gone  spill  spilt  spilt  grow  grew  grown  spoil  spoilt  spoilt  hang  hung/hanged  hung/hanged  stand  stood  stood  have(has)  had  had  sweep  swept  swept  hear  heard  heard  swim  swam  swum  hide  hid  hidden  take  took  taken  hit  hit  hit  teach  taught  taught  hold  held  held  tell  told  told  hurt  hurt  hurt  think  thought  thought  keep  kept  kept  throw  threw  thrown  know  knew  known  understand  understood  understood  lay  laid  laid  wake  woke/waked  woken/waked  learn  learnt/learned  learnt/learned  wear  wore  worn  leave  left  left  will  would  lend  lent  lent  win  won  won  let  let  let  write  wrote  witten  lie  lay  lain  3、be(“是/存在”)动词的各种时态变化:  一 般 现 在 时  一 般 将 来 时  现 在 完 成 时  I am….  You are.…  He/She/It is….  We/You/They are….  (I等各人称) will be….  I am  He/She/It is going to be…  We/You/They are  I have been….  You have been….  She/he/It has been….  We/You/They have been….  一 般 过 去 时  过 去 将 来 时  过 去 完 成 时  I was….  You were.…  He/She/It was….  We/You/They were….  (I等各人称) would be….  I was  He/She/It was going to be…  We/You/They were  I had been….  You had been….  She/he/It had been….  We/You/They had been….  注意:句型变化时,  否定句在am/is/are/will/have/has/was/were/had/would后面加not,而且not都可以缩写为n’t(am后面not不可以缩写);  疑问句将am/is/are/will/have/has/was/were/had/would提前到句首。  4、其它谓语动词(主动语态)的时态变化一览表:  现在 时态  一 般 现 在 时  现 在 进 行 时  一 般 将 来 时  现 在 完 成 时  谓语动词构成  动词用原形(单三加s / es)  (问句和否定句借用助词do / does)  am  is +动词-ing  are  will + 动词原形  am  is +going to+动词原形  are  have +过去分词  has  过去 时态  一 般 过 去 时  过 去 进 行 时  过 去 将 来 时  过 去 完 成 时  谓语动词构成  动词用过去式  (问句和否定句借用助词did)  was  +动词-ing  were  would + 动词原形  was  +going to+动词原形  were  注:动词的非谓语形式及用法见非谓语动词专项讲解。
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