时间:2019-01-06 英语知识 我要投稿


  How the Hawaiian Is lands Were Built  Volcanoes have been erupting on the earth for millions of years.More than five hundred still erupt today.These are called active volcanoes.Volcanoes are located in belts or chains.They are found where the earth's crust is weak.The weak spots let the hot rock escape when the volcano erupts.  Many volcano belts are mountain ranges along the edges of continents.One belt runs along the western coast of South America up through the western part of the United States.Other volcanoes are found in ocean basins.  About three-fifths of all active volcanoes in the world are in the Pacific Ocean.Many of these volcanoes erupt under the water.The Hawaiian Islands were built by volcanoes that began erupting under water and finally reached the surface of the ocean.  夏威夷群岛是怎样形成的  火山在地球上喷发已有几百万年的历史。有500多座火山至今还在喷发,这些火山叫做活火山。火山呈带状或链状分布,它们一般位于地壳脆弱的地段。火山喷发时,灼热的岩浆便从脆弱的地点流出。  许多火山带是一些大陆边缘的山脉。有一个火山带沿南美洲的西海岸向北,穿过美国的西部。另一些火山位于海洋盆地中。  世界上大约有3/5的活火山在太平洋,这些火山中有许多在水下喷发。夏威夷群岛便是由从水下喷发、最终达到洋面的火山而形成的。


  Diamonds in the United States  Most of the world's diamonds come from Africa,but there is one place in the United States where they are found.It is near Murfreesboro,Arkansas.  Diamonds were first found near Murfreesboro in 1906.About fifty thousand diamonds have come from this field.One forty-caratdiamond was the largest ever found in North America.But most of the stones were too small to make mining worthwhile.Soon all mining stopped there.Today a visitor to Murfreesboro can hurt for diamonds himself.  A few diamonds have been found in sand and gravel along the Great Lakes,too.But none of these were in their original blue ground.They may have been formed far to the north and carried south by the last great glaciers.  美国的钻石  世界上的钻石大部分出自非洲,但美国也有一个钻石产地,它位于阿肯色州默弗里斯博罗附近。  1906年,在默弗里斯博罗附近首次发现钻石,从这个矿里一共开采了大约5万颗钻石,其中一颗重40克拉的钻石是迄今在北美洲发现的最大的一颗。但是,多数钻石都太小,没有什么开采价值,不久那里的采掘工作就都停止了。今天去默弗里斯博罗的游客可以亲自去寻找钻石。  在五大湖沿岸的沙地和砾石中也发现一些钻石,但是没有一颗保持原有的蓝色。它们也许是在遥远的北方成形,然后由最后一批大冰川带到南方的。


  The Three Ways of Man to Preserve Meat  Finding enough meat was a problem for primitive man.Keeping it for times when it was scarce was just as hard.Three ways were found to keep meat from spoiling:salting,drying,and freezing.  People near salty waters salted their meat.At first they probably rubbed dry salt on it,but this preserved only the outside.Later they may have pickled their meat by soaking it in salt water.  In hot,dry lands,men found that they could eat meat that had dried while it was still on the bones.They later learned to cut meat into thin strips and hang it up to dry in the hot air.  Men in cold climates found that frozen meat did not spoil.They could leave their meat outside and eat it when they pleased.  人类储存肉的三种方法  对原始人类来说,获得充足的肉是件难事,而把肉类储存到缺肉的时令也同样不容易。人们找到了防止肉类变腐的三种办法:盐腌、风干和冷冻。  靠近咸水地带的居民用盐腌肉。起先,他们可能是把干盐擦在肉上,但这只能使肉的外部不腐。后来,他们也许就改用咸水浸泡的办法来腌肉了。  在炎热、干燥的地方,人们发现他们可以食用已经变干、但仍连在骨骼上的肉。后来,他们学会把肉切成薄条,悬挂起来,让它在炎热的空气中变干。  生活在寒冷气候下的人们则发现冻肉不腐。他们可以把肉置于室外,高兴时随时可吃。


  Earthworms that Help Improve the Soil  The earthworm is a useful animal.Out of the ground,it is food for other animals.In the ground,it makes rich soil for fields and gardens.  Earthworms dig tunnels that loosen the soil and make it easy for air and water to reach the roots of plants.These tunnels help keep the soil well drained.  Earthworms drag dead leaves,grass,and flowers into their burrows.When this plant material decays,it makes the soil more fertile.  No other animal is so useful in building up good topsoil.It is estimated that in one year fifty thousand earthworms carry about eighteen tons of fine soil to the surface of an acre of land.One worm may add three quarters of a pound of earth to tho topsoil.  帮助改良土壤的蚯蚓  蚯蚓是一种有益的动物。来到地面上,它成了其他动物的食品,而在地里,它却为田地和花园制造着肥沃的土壤。  蚯蚓挖掘风洞,使土壤变松,并使空气和水容易抵达植物的根部。这些风洞有助于土壤迅速排水。  蚯蚓把枯树叶、草和花朵拖进自己的洞中,这种植物性物质腐烂后,便使土壤变得更肥沃了。  在制造优良的表面土壤方面,没有别的动物能像蚯蚓这样有用。据估计,一年中,5万条蚯蚓能把大约18吨的细壤送到1英亩土地的表面,一条蚯蚓也许能把3/4磅的土壤加到地表层。


  Who First Made Ice Cream  Most Americans think that ice cream is as American as baseball and apple pie.But ice cream was known long before America was discovered.  The Roman emperor Nero may have made a kind of ice cream.He hired hundreds of men to bring snow and ice from the mountains.He used it to make cold drinks.Traveler Marco Polobrought back recipes for chilled and frozen milk from China.  Hundreds of years later,ice cream reached England.It is said that King Charles Ienjoyed that treatvery much.There is a story that he bribed his cook to keep the recipe for ice cream a royal secret.  Today ice cream is known throughout the world.Americans alone eat more than two billion quartsa year.  谁是冰淇淋的首创者  大多数美国人认为,冰淇淋像棒球和苹果饼一样,是属于美国的。但是,早在人们发现美洲大陆之前,冰淇淋就已经问世了。  古罗马国王尼禄可能配制过一种冰淇淋。他曾雇用几百人从山上搬来雪和冰,用以制作冷饮料。旅行家马可波罗也曾从中国带回了冷冻奶和冰奶的配方。  几百年后,冰淇淋传到了英国。据说国王查理一世十分欣赏这种食品,他曾贿赂御厨,要他把制作冰淇淋的配方作为皇家秘密,守口如瓶。  今天全世界都知道冰淇淋了,仅美国人一年的消耗量就超过20亿夸脱。


  The Necktie through Thick and Thin  From hat to shoes,men's clothes are useful.Only one piece of clothing is worn just for decoration.It is the necktie,or cravat.The necktie is left over from the time when men wore ruffles,ribbons,and tassels.  Beau Brummel was an Englishman of the early 1800's.He was famous for his fancy clothes.The story is told that he used to invite guests just to watch him knot his white cravat.  Now,perhaps,even the necktie is going out of style.It has been getting smaller and smaller for hundreds of years.It started out as a piece of lace and turned into a silk bow.Then it became a triangle that was tied around the neck.Now many neckties are no wider than a piece of string.  领带的沧桑  人的衣物,从帽子到鞋,都有实用价值。唯有一样完全是为了装饰,那就是领带,或者叫“克拉瓦特”。领带是人们从佩戴饰边、缎带和帽穗的时代遗留下来的。  博·布伦美是19世纪初叶的一位英国人,因穿着的花哨而出名。传说他常邀请客人专程去观看他给自己白色的领带打结。  现在,也许连领带也快不时髦了。几百年来,领带变得越来越小。当初,它只不过是一段带子,后来变成丝制的蝴蝶结,以后又演变为缠在脖子上的三角形饰物。现在许多领带的宽度只不过相当于一根绳子的粗细罢了。