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时间:2018-09-20 英语知识 我要投稿
  一般祈使句  句型[(呼语),(Dont)动词原形+(宾语)+其他]  1. Study, study and once more study. 2. Working men of all countries, unite!  3. Learn from comrade Lei Feng. 4. Dont forget it. 5. Come here.  6. Stop crying and wipe away your tears.  句型[(Dont)Be+表语+(其他)]  1. Be red and expert. 2. Be brave, dont be afraid. 3. Dont be shy!  4. Be careful, when cross the street. 5. Be an honest person, speak and act honestly.  3. Dont be afraid, speak out.  句型[Get+过去分词/副词虚助词+(其他)]  1. Get organized! 2. Get done with it. 3. Get away! 4. Get along with you.  5. Get out of here. 6. Get back.  [附注] 祈使句一般不用主语,如系多数人而须指示任务时可以有主语,这个主语相当于呼语。如:  1. You talk; we have heard enough from the others.  2. Everybody shut their eyes.  3. You sweep the floor, Xiao Wang; you clean the desks, Xiao Li, and others fetch water.  其次,大人对孩子说话,或含有急躁、厌烦等情绪, 也可加主语you  1. Now you listen to me. 2. You must not talk so loud!  3. Now you get a bit of paper and write down. 4. Your mind your own business!  第三,当句中的副词虚助词在句首时,须用主语,如:In you go! (=Go in, please.)  强语势祈使句  句型62[(肯定句)Do +动词原形+(其他)]/[(否定句) Never+动词原形+(其他)]  1. Do tell me! 2. Do be careful! 3. Do come! 4. Do stay with us! 5. Never tell a lie.  6. Never stand right in the middle of your work.  7. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.  句型[No/None of+名词!]  1. No falsehood! Our strength lies in stating the truth.  2. The King said: he has studied too much, No books and no teachers any more!...  3. None of your little games! 4. None of your nonsense! 5. None of your impudence  [注1] no是泛指,none所指有一定的范围  [注2] 旧时有用for Gods sake或for goodness sake等来加强语气的。For Gods sake dont fire that gun!  委婉祈使句  句型[Please+动词原形+(其他)]  1. Please pass me the dictionary. 2. Lend me your knife, please.  3. Dont stand please on ceremony. 4. Move along, please. 5. Please help yourself!  [注] 文学作品中please可用pray替代,如:1. Pray go home. 2. Pray, go on with your next story.  句型[Will you/ Wont you/ Would you+动词原形+(其他)]  1. Will you come here? (= Please come here.) 2. Will you do the beds, while I do the windows?  3. Help me with this luggage, will you? 4. Wont you stay a little longer?  5. Wont you have some more? 6. Would you do me a favor? - Why, of course.  7. Would you like another drink? 8. Would you kindly show me the way?  [注] 疑问句的祈使句还有 could, can, may, might, 如:Could you lend me five shillings until tomorrow?  Might (May) I borrow your pen (for) a moment?  句型[Would you mind (not) +动名词+(其他)]/ [Do you mind (not) +动名词+(其他)]  1. Would (或Do) you mind lending me your dictionary?-Certainly not.  2. Would you mind being here at nine oclock?  3. Do you mind my opening the window?-Oh, no, please.  4. Do you mind not smoking in the dining-room, please?  句型[What about +动名词+(其他)]/[How about+动名词+(其他)]  1. What about starting work tomorrow? 2. What about going out for a walk?  3. How about trying to do it my way?  句型[Be+so good/kind as+不定式+(其他)]/ [Be+good/kind enough+不定式+(其他)]  1. Be so good as to come and join us at 5 oclock.  2. Be so kind as (=kind enough) to shut the door.  3. Be good enough to let me know when you will return from your holiday.  4. Be kind enough to come and help me to study English.  [注1] 句型60, 61可与本句型结合使用, 如:1. Will you be back early this evening, please? 2. Will you be kind enough/so kind as to close the door? 3. Would you be so good as to post the letter for me?  [注2] 有时可以在这些句型前加上just, 使语气更缓和,如:Just listen to her, please! Just shut the door, will you?  建议祈使句  句型[Let us/ Lets或Let+第三人称宾语+动词原形+其他]  1. Let us know the time of your arrival. 2. Oh, do let us be friends.  3. Lets go.-yes, lets go. 4. Lets start early, shall we?  5. Shall he come in?-let him wait! 6. Let him have his say.  7. Nature and Natures laws lay hid in night, god said Let Newton be and all was light.  [注] let可用于句型55,如:Let me see. Let me alone. Please let me into the house.  句型[Let+宾语+not }+动词原形+其他][Dont let+宾语+动词原形+其他]  1. Let us not go. 2. Lets not waste out time arguing about it. 3. Lets not discuss it in class.  4. Dont let the fire out. 5. Dont let the children come near the edge.  6. Pray (please) dont let us be splitting hairs, or therell never be an end of the cause.  [注1] 古英语中可采用 Let not+宾语的形式,如:1. Let not success elate you. (=you should not be elated by success.) 2. Let not failure deject you  [注2] 以上三种否定式不可用于间接引语中,如:(误)Tell him dont let the fire out.  (误)Tell him let the fire not out. (误)Tell him let not the fire out. (正)Tell him not to let the fire out.  句型[Suppose/Supposing+主语+谓语(动词原形、过去时)+其他]  1. Suppose you ring me up. 2. Supposing we go for a swim.  3. Suppose (Supposing) we try to do it my way. 4. Supposing we looked (look) him up today.  句型[主语+had better+动词原形+其他]  1. Wed better start early. (=It would be better for us to start early.)  2. Youd better do as the doctor says and stay in bed.  3. You had better go to the fields and have a look. 4. Hadnt you better take an umbrella?  [注] 相当于本句型的还有以下二式:1. would be well+不定式 It would be well to start early.  2. may as well+原形动词 We may as well go.  [附注] 建议祈使句还可以用以下动词来表达  1)allow, 如:Allow me, Sir, to introduce you to my fellow-travelers.  Pray allow me to detain you for a moment..  2) permit, 多用于正式场合,如:Permit me to explain further.  Please permit me, on behalf of our school, to extend my heartfelt greetings to you.  其次,也可用陈述句来表达这种概念。如:You have to knock before you enter my room.  1. You are not to come into my room without knocking.  2. You ought to show honor to your teachers. 3. We should be the masters of Science.  4. You are to write your name at the top of each sheet of paper.  祝愿句  句型[Long live+第三人称主语]  1. Long live our socialist motherland.  2. Long live the great, glorious and correct Communist Party of China.  句型[May+第二、三人称主语+动词原形+其他]  1. May you return soon! 2. May he never repent this act!  3. May you succeed in building up a strong and prosperous country!  4. May our two peoples achieve even greater successes in our socialist construction!  [注] 句型69,70可结合使用。如:Long may she live to enjoy her good fortune!  有时可用might代替may, 如:Rather might they live in friendship for the future!  句型[(祝愿内容)名词+to+名词或代词(被祝愿对象)]  1. Eternal glory to the peoples heroes! 2. Solute to you! 3. Success to you!  4. A long life to you! 5. A toast to our friendship! 6. A happy journey to you! 7. Good luck to you!  句型[If only/But+主语+虚拟式谓语+其他]  1. If only Marx were still by my side to see this with his own eyes!  2. If only I had known then what I knew long afterwards!  3. Ah, if only it had life and movement! 4. If I could only get something to do.  句型[Oh/ O/ Ah)名词+that+主语+虚拟式谓语+其他][Oh/ O/ Ah)名词+to be+表语+其他]  [Oh/ O/ Ah)名词+虚拟式谓语+主语+其他]  1. Oh! That she could come back to life again! 2. O that he were alive and could see the fruits of his labor.  3. Ah, that I had but known! 4. O that I had listened to him! 5. Oh, to be in England now that Aprils there! 6. O to be a boy again! 7. O were he only here! 8. O had I wings!  句型[Be+主语+表语+其他]/[表语+Be+主语+其他]  1. Be his banner unconquered, resistless his spear.  2. Be ours a happy meeting! 3. Light be her heart and gay her merry eyes!  4. So be it! (=So may it be! =Be it so!)  5. Good friend for Jesus sake, forbear  To dig the dust enclosed here,  Blessed be he that spares these stones  And curst be he that moves my bones. (Epitaph written by Shakespeare)  句型[Would (that)+主语+虚拟式谓语+其他]  1. Would (that) it were otherwise! 2. Would that they were safe home again!  3. Would you were with us! (= I wish you were with us!) 4. Would I were a scientist!  5. Would (that) I were young again. 6. Would I were as strong as you.  [注] 口语中还有各种表示祝愿的说法,如:Good morning! A Happy New Year! A Happy Holiday! Happy journey! Many happy returns (of the day)! Good luck in everything! My best wishes to you!  揭示句  句型 [ No+动名词或名词!]/ [(修饰语)+名词]  1. No Smoking! 2. No Parking Here! 3. No Scribbling (on the wall)! 4. No Passage!  2. No Admittance! 6. No Admittance except on business. 7. No Spitting! 8. No Talking!  9. No Thoroughfare. 10. No Bill (或 Post No Bill). 11. Not to Be Taken Away!  12. Order! 13. Interval - 10 Min. 14. The End. 15. Night Bell. 16. Holiday.  17. Poison! 18. Danger! 19. High Tension! 20. Attention! (或Look out!)  [注] 这种句型还可以用副词,形容词,分词,动词,词组或句子来表达,如:Slow; Keep Right;  Hands off; Wet Paint; Beware of Fire; Upstairs; Downstairs; Push; Pull; Children not Allowed; Engaged; Full, All Full; Time Entrance; Exit; Way out等。  口号口令式祈使句  句型[副词虚助词+with+名词(或代词)]  1. Down with the slave mentality! Bury dogmatism!  2. Away with superstition and emancipate the mind.  3. Down with the landlords! 4. Up with the poor! 5. Up with it! 6. In with you! 7. Out with it!  8. Off with your hat. 9. Off with their heads! 10. On with your shoes!  句型[名词+副词虚助词!] [副词或比较级副词!]  1. Hands up! 2. Hands off! 3. Skates off! 4. Forward to new victories! 5. Louder! 6. Higher!  7. Forward, men, forward cries Pakenham. 8. Away!-away! cried she wildly.
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